This case study explains how carbon impacts were identified, and then a range of energy saving measures introduced, during the redevelopment of London Bridge station.
At London Bridge, the station has been designed with a naturally ventilated concourse that does not require heating or air conditioning and allows for as much natural lighting as possible, resulting in significant energy savings. Also active energy efficient measures have been included in the final build including efficient lighting controls, high efficiency heat recovery, efficient air and water distribution, and regenerative technology and efficient control gear systems for lifts. For example, a geothermal energy pile system will deliver carbon reductions of 6.1% and is a first for Network Rail. Installation of LED lighting in the majority of the station concourse to provide annual CO2e savings of around 235t. During construction of the station, use of reinforcement steel with 98% recycled content has delivered a 8,353 tCO2e saving.
Identifying and reducing carbon emissions
In the design station we undertook a carbon footprint to identify our key carbon hotspots, this enabled us to understand where our biggest energy/carbon impacts were (embodied carbon of materials such as concrete and steel, construction energy and operational energy). An options appraisal was subsequently developed to propose a range of operational energy saving measures, which were investigated in terms of feasibility, energy cost savings and carbon emission reduction. The selected measures included:
- The design of a naturally ventilated concourse that does not require heating or air conditioning and allows for as much natural lighting as possible, resulting in significant energy savings
- A geothermal energy pile system delivering carbon reductions of 6.1% and is a first for Network Rail
- Intelligent control escalators that allow reduced energy use during station off-peak hours with annual savings of 36.46 tCO2e and over £9,000 in operational costs
- Use of reinforcement Steel with 98% recycled content that has delivered a 8,353 tCO2e saving.
• Installation of LED lighting in the majority of the station concourse to provide annual CO2e savings of around 235t
- Inclusion of active energy efficient measures in the final build including efficient lighting controls, high efficiency heat recovery, efficient air and water distribution, and regenerative technology and efficient control gear systems for lifts
- Development of an Operational Waste Management Plan and delivery of a brand new service yard; prior to the redevelopment the station recycling rate was 43% (late 2015) but when the service yard was fully operational in 2017 and the plan implemented, improved rates of 70-75% were achieved.
The impact of embodied energy and carbon
Furthermore the embodied energy and carbon impact of the materials and components proposed for the station were investigated in detail as part of a project lifecycle energy and carbon analysis. Again this identified the key contributors to the overall carbon footprint and focused attentions on lower impact options.
For the project to continue to reduce its impact during the construction phase, the following measures were implemented:
- The site office accommodation was signed up to a 100% renewable Green Energy tariff and was thus carbon neutral and reduced CO2e emissions by 650t/year
- Smart Meters were installed on each floor to allow us to monitor energy use and run Energy Efficiency Campaigns, challenging each floor to reduce their usage. This resulted in a saving of nearly 2% (equivalent to £2,500/year).
- Eco-Driver Training was provided and thi identified where and how savings could be made by driving efficiently. A diesel reduction of 20% saved around £10,000 and 71 tCO2e
- Energy saving dehumidifiers provided a carbon saving of 167 tCO2e
- ‘Caretaker’ IT software managed our office energy use, saving 429 tCO2e over the project duration
- Energy and water saving measures were employed in the office, including zip boilers, Dyson hand dryers (80% energy reduction), automatic taps, dual flush toilets, waterless urinals and PIR sensors
- Equitrac Print Management System had huge savings on paper and toner usage, therefore reducing associated carbon
- Hybrid or electric plant such as MEWPs and tower lights were utilised on site wherever possible, reducing fuel usage
- Transport of 200,000 tonnes of waste soil via barge resulted in 60% carbon emissions reduction compared to road transport.
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